Vomeronasal organ (VNO) (dashed lines indicate probable VNO nerve pathway to hypothalamus) which detects pheromones, in the human nose. Pheromone molecules enter the nostrils and contact the sensory receptor cells in the " VNO, which in turn send nerve impulses to the hypothalamus. a key“; control center in the brain. ‘
The Search for the Sixth Sense
The man whose work culminated in the discovery of the sixth sense is Dr. David L. Berliner. He looks like a kindly grandfather except this grandfather is one of the world’s top biotechnoligists. Among other things, Berliner helped pioneer technique for administering drug therapy through skin patches like the well-known nicotine and estrogen patches.
Berliner was born and raised in Mexico City, the son of parents who emigrated from Poland to Mexico during 1922 Berliner happened upon pheromones in the 1960s while work: day, is loaded with pheromones-—“milIions and millions” more than regular skin cells, Berliner explains. Check out pheromones at mpommett.blog.fc2.com/blog-entry-3.html
When Berliner left the university to pursue a career in venture capitalism and biotechnology, he put the ﬂask, which still contained the skin cell extracts, in the deep freeze and left it there until 1989, when he revisited his decades-old hunch that the extract had somehow inﬂuenced human behavior. For years, Berliner had been unable to shake his experience in the Utah lab. What kept resurfacing in his mind was what had happened when the ﬂask was closed: The staffs behavior returned to normal. They became testy, unfriendly, and characteristically silent. Learn about Androstenone pheromones | http://pheromones-planet.com/
While the pheromones in Berliner’s ﬂask sat frozen, studies into how pheromones serve as chemical signals in insects and animals were gaining momentum. For years, Berliner tossed a novel thought around in his mind: If other animals produce and respond to pheromones, why wouldn’t humans?
Until recently, the human VNO had not received a good deal of respect in the press. In 1938 neuroanatornist Dr. Elizabeth Crosby, writing in an anatomy textbook, dismissed the VNO fifty years, until the work of Berliner and his colleagues shook her theory from its foundation. Learn more about pheromones that work for me at https://jail6letter.wordpress.com/
Stensaas spent months looking at nasal specimens through an electron microscope, an instrument that focuses rays of electrons, instead of the usual light rays employed by a light microscope, to form an enlarged image of a subject. In time, he arrived at what he had been searching for: evidence of a human Vomeronasal organ.
Stensaas’s micrographs strengthened Berliner’s hypothesis that humans have the necessary anatomy to process pheromones. They revealed that the human VNO appears as a pitlike opening in the nasal wall, beyond which lies the organ itself, a tube lined by tall, narrow cells—the pseudostratified columnar epithelium.
Meanwhile, Dr. David Moran, a cell biologist and electron microscopist, and Dr. Bruce Jafek, an ear, nose, and throat specialist had independently examined the human VNO and found it to be present in all of the patients they had studied. As they worked together, Moran and Jafek, who teamed up to study the human sense of smell in 1981, began to discuss the accessory ol- factory system (or, in simpler terms, the VNO-pheromone system) in mammals. “It occurred to both Bruce and me that we're mammals. Being mammals, it would be strange if humans didn’t have a functioning Vomeronasal organ,” says Moran. “And just as the human sense of smell is reduced in size, so may this accesory olfactory system be reduced in size—but it really ought to be there.”
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