The pheromone-treated orchard was reduced by 98% over the conventional insecticide- treated orchard after the 1st years’ testing ([977). At the close of the 2nd year (1978), male captures increased in the conventional orchard over the previous year and the pheromone—treated orchard revealed a reduction in male captures of 98.8% from the conventional orchard thanks to http://thongchaimedical.org/?p=176
Third-year (1979) captures again increased substantially over the 2nd year in the conventional orchard, producing a reduction in male captures by 99.9% over the pheromone orchard. Male captures averaged 131.5, 158.7, and 295.2 per trap per year, respectively, for three consecutive years in the conventional orchard, while male captures averaged only 0.33, 0.33, and 0.17 per trap per year in the pheromone—treated orchard during the same time according to me. Learn about pheromone colognes to attract women | http://baids.org
Pupal skin counts reflected the same general trend in population reduction in the pheromone-treated orchard (Table 4). Pupal skin counts were 2.3 and 0.85 per 100 trees, respectively, for the conventional and pheromone—treated orchards, producing a 61% reduction in the pheromone—treated orchard for the 1977 season. Similarly, 1978 counts were 30.3 and 3.0 pupal skins per 100 trees, producing a 90% reduction in the pheromone—treated orchard although the counts were slightly up in the pheromone—treated orchard and substantially higher in the conventional orchard over the previous year. Data for the 1979 season, however, showed a decrease in pupal skin counts in the pheromone—treated orchard over the previous year while counts in the conventional orchard also decreased over the previous year thanks to others.
The percent reduction was 94% in the pheromone over the conventional orchard. During 8 days of mating observations in 1978, a total of 102 and 87 females, respec- tively, were used in the conventional and pheromone—treated orchards (Table 5). Ap- proximately one half of them called, and seven matings were accomplished in the con- ventional orchard and no matings in the pheromone orchard.
Results were about the same in 1979. During 7 days of observations, a total of 90 and 96 females, respectively, were used in the conventional and pheromone—treated orchards. At least half of them called, and 18 successful matings were accomplished in the conventional orchard, and, again, no matings occurred in the pheromone—treated orchard.
Treatments were made in isolated peach orchard situations which decreased the threat of moth migration from nontreated orchards. 3. Lures were placed on trees in advance of the beginning moth flight.
However, there are other questions that remain unanswered at the present time. The effects of treatments in nonisolated orchard situations is not known because behavior of females in these unnatural situations has not been studied in detail. Will gravid females migrate into an air-permeated area and oviposit? What are behavior patterns of males and females on the fringes of treated areas? The present status of control of PTBs with pheromones is promising, and unanswered questions will be solved in due time. Learn about the presence of human pheromones.
The numbers of pink bollworm moths caught in pheromone traps in all fields are shown in Table 3. In the insecticide-treated control fields, more moths were caught, spermatophores per female were higher, and the percentage of mated females was greater than in pheromone-treated fields. Also, mating was significantly reduced in fields treated with gossyplure plus virelure compared with control fields; significantly more pink bollworm males were caught in all control fields than in all gossyplure-treated fields. and mating and average spermatophores per female were reduced 45 and 64%, respectively, in the treated fields.
Effect on Tobacco Budworm Male Moth Catches
Catches of tobacco budworm male moths were low throughout the season (Figure 4). Before the applications of pheromone, they ranged from 0.3 to 9 per trap in the experimental cotton fields and averaged 2.2 moths per trap over all fields. The first
applications of the pheromone combinations were made May 16. There were no significant differences in trap catches between any of the treatments and the insecticide- treated control until after July 19.
However, beginning on July 20, after the fifth set of treatments. male catches in vlrelure-gossyplure treated fields were lower on all but one sampling date than in control fields. and the difference was significant on 21 of the 30 sampling dates. The impact of the TF-gossyplure and Z9 TDF-gossyplure treatments on tobacco budworm moth catches ln baited traps was variable. but catches were reduced In treated flelds on 10 of 30 sampling dates. Learn more about pheromones at http://thongchaimedical.org/?p=176
Pheromone treatments had little effect on populations of eggs and larvae. Fewer Heliothis eggs were found in terminals in the fields treated with virelure-gossyplure on some sampling dates in August, but the differences were not significantly different (Table 4). Also, larval populations were less in pheromone-treated fields than in control fields on one sampling date (August 23). During the month of September, egg counts were similar in all treated and insecticide treated—control fields. However, on October 4 and 8, significantly higher numbers of eggs were found in control fields than in fields treated with TF-gossyplure, virelurgossyplure, or Z—9 TDF—gossyplure according to Attract-RX pheromone | Pheromones-Planet.com
Heliothis populations in the untreated check field developed slowly and never reached damaging numbers.
Egg hatch ranged from 13 to 100% (average 81%) for the eggs collected from all fields from August 14 to September 11 (66 samples). Pheromone treatments did not affect egg hatch. Of the eggs collected and reared to adult moths, 33 to 100% (average 98%) were tobacco budworm. Learn about sex pheromones influence.
The nocturnal collections showed peak populations of tobacco budworm and boll- worm present on August 23 when 4.9 moths per man—hour were captured (Table 5). More tobacco budworms (about two times) were captured than bollworms. The high female-to-male sex ratio (about 2.8:l) of the tobacco budworm population may be related to the removal of tobacco budworm males from the low-density population by the four pheromone traps that were present throughout the season in each treated field.
Nevertheless, one must use laboratory-reared females for evaluation purposes with caution. Minks" compared two strains of laboratory-reared “summerfruit tortrix moth”, Adoxophyes orana (Fisher von Roeflerstamm) for pheromone production. One strain was completely inbred, while the other received fresh insects from the field on occasion. The inbred pheromone strain produced far less pheromone than the other strain. Learn more at http://sundowndivers.org/?p=82.
Long-Range Pheromone Mating Orientation
In 1932, Collins and Potts‘ described the long distance orientation of male gypsy moths toward virgin females as an upwind zigzag flight following the female scent. They found that males could travel more than 2 miles to find calling females. However, they did not imply that they were actively attracted from such distances according to https://jail6letter.wordpress.com/2015/03/17/your-pheromones-matter-to-her/
They might imply that few males would enter traps in dense populations in the absence of visual cues. However, in a 1979 test in New Jersey,” 25 milk-carton traps baited with (+) pheromone caught over 34,000 male moths in a moderate (about 140 preseason egg masses per hectare) gypsy moth population. Many similar observations could be cited. Therefore, male gypsy moths are obviously able and willing to follow the pheromone plume to its source in the absence of visual cues at any population level, although the presence of behavioral differences in male moths at different population levels cannot be discounted.
Implied in the above discussion is the possibility that pheromone behavior differs according to population density. The male behavior described for sparse populations would seem to favor the location of traps by males. Since mass trapping for control is virtually limited to sparse populations, this behavior should enhance the mass—trapping approach. Learn about powerful pheromones.
Bednyi and Kovalev" found that in Moldavia, male flight to a pheromone source increased steadily from 0800 to 1400, dropped somewhat from 1400 to 1700, and then declined sharply until 2000, at which time it had practically ceased. Male flight to females was similar except that peak period was 1100; thereafter, catches declined. The difference apparently reflected the female calling rhythm. Cardé et al.” reported that in the U.S., male response to either a pheromone source or to virgin females is initiated between 0800 and 0900, with peak catch at both sources occurring between 1100 and 1500, and then declining until 2000. Richerson et al.“ reported peak male sexual activity between 0800 and 1800 but found some activity occurred as early as 0600 and as late as 2200.
O’Dell“ found that eclosion of both sexes is diurnal; it begins shortly after sunrise, with peak levels dependent on temperature (see discussion under female diel periodicity for details). Although newly eclosed males do respond to pheromone, initial flight occurs about 4 hr after eclosion. Night flight occurs at temperatures above 21°C. Results of O’Dell and Mastro” indicate that a significant number of first male flights is crepuscular, taking place between 1900 and 2000. The majority of males disperse be- tween ll0O and 1500, but flight tapers off in the afternoon, while increasing again at dusk. Evening flight begins shortly after sunset and lasts about 45 min, apparently serving to redistribute the males for predator avoidance.