One reason why pheromones have not developed more rapidly towards use as a practical control measure is a result of limited understanding of insect behavior as related to these materials. It does not necessarily follow that all chemically identiﬁed sex pheromones will be suitable for development as tools for pest control according to http://thongchaimedical.org/?p=179.
Apart from the chemical factors involved, such as stability, volatility and reactivity of the compounds, which may well affect their use, the effectiveness depends on the biology of the insect (Shorey 1972). The behavior may not be amenable to manipulation by synthetic chemicals, particularly if the response to a pheromone source is synergized by or dependent on, visual or auditory cues from the source. Presence of the pheromone could serve to release visual searching behavior which is merely intensiﬁed when man introduces pheromone into the environment. A sex pheromone that releases a totally dependent response to the source may be rare. Only a great deal of experience and research will answer these questions. Check out the latest pheromone reviews.
If eradication is attempted using pheromones alone, strong selection pressure is being imposed which will favor the development of ‘resistance’, i.e. a population could rapidly evolve that relies more on other methods of communication for mating. There is no evidence that resistance is any less likely to develop against ‘natural compounds’, like pheromones, than against chemical pesticides, if the two are used in the same indiscriminate way.
Although sex or aggregation pheromones are the only pheromones currently being considered for use in pest management or integrated control programs, other areas of chemical communication may also hold considerable promise for the fu- ture. Concentration of predators or parasites using kairomones is one prospect, use of chemical oviposition stimuli is another. Larval forms are in many cases less discriminating than the adults and will, within limits, eat whatever substrate they are laid on. The adult egg-laden female, on the other hand, has highly selective sensory capabilities and may well be more amenable to manipulation. Learn more about pheromones at www.articlesfactory.com/articles/science/the-role-of-pheromones-in-animals.html
Some parasitic insects are capable of selecting non-parasitized hosts over previous- ly parasitized ones. One way in which females do this is by detecting a pheromone left by a previous female on the host or substrate (or in the host after inserting the ovipositor), thus avoiding superparasitism when neither may survive (Price 1970; Vinson 1972; Guilot and Vinson 1972). A potentially practical parallel to this behavior occurs in the apple-maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), where the female marks the surface of the fruit (apple or cherry) with a pheromone after laying an egg on it. This apparently deters other females from egg laying and helps to ensure that the egg laid develops to maturity (Prokopy 1972).
Another promising area is with pheromones of social insects, where alarm phero- mone communication or caste differentiation may be subject to change within the conﬁnes of the nest. Very small quantities of pheromone may be needed to disrupt colony reproduction and survival. Such an approach has enormous potential if applied, for example, to the areas ofAfrica where termites constitute the dominant biomass.